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Capable of reading and writing effectively in Standard Written Chinese and English.
Central Curriculum
The Curriculum recommended by the Curriculum Development Council for schools includes the aims and goals of the school curriculum, five essential learning experiences, the curriculum frameworks of eight Key Learning Areas and General Studies for Primary Schools. Other items include lesson time allocated to each Key Learning Area and specific requirements of individual Key Learning Areas, e.g. core components, essential learning elements can also be found. (See school-based curriculum)
The approach of ‘learning and teaching as co-construction’ is different from ‘direct teaching’ and ‘construction’. ‘Co-construction’ emphasises the learning community formed by both teachers and students in the classroom and the joint participation of all parties. This process contributes to the general building up of knowledge and the principles for consideration.
Co-curricular Activities
Activities that provide students with learning experiences to be gained inside or outside the classroom, including the actual environment in the community and work places. Traditionally known as extra-curricular activities, they form an integral part of the school curriculum complementing the formal classroom learning.
Curriculum Framework
A structure that helps schools to plan and develop their own curricula. The major components are: knowledge and concepts, generic skills, values and attitudes relevant to each Key Learning Area. The framework sets out what students should learn, value and be able to do in various key stages. It provides schools and teachers with flexibility and ownership to plan and develop different curriculum modes to meet the students’ varied needs.
E-learning refers to an open and flexible learning mode involving the use of the electronic media, including use of digital resources and communication tools to achieve learning objectives. The essence of e-learning is the use of technology to deliver learning content more effectively and the learning process in e-learning environments is expected to consider three key elements for maximising learning opportunities conducive to 21st century skills development. They include blending formal and informal learning approaches, balancing individualised and collaborative learning to help learners to increase awareness of learning achievement and collecting evidence of improvement.
Generic Skills
Generic skills are skills, abilities and attributes which are fundamental in helping students to acquire, construct and apply knowledge. They are developed through the learning and teaching that takes place in different subjects or Key Learning Areas, and are applicable in different learning situations. Nine types of generic skills are identified in the Hong Kong curriculum, i.e. collaboration skills, communication skills, creativity, critical thinking skills, information technology skills, numeracy skills, problem-solving skills, self-management skills and study skills.
Key Learning Areas (KLA)
It is a way of organising the school curriculum around fundamental concepts of major knowledge domains. It aims at providing a broad, balanced and coherent curriculum for all students through engaging them in a variety of essential learning experiences. The Hong Kong curriculum has eight KLAs, namely, Chinese Language Education, English Language Education, Mathematics Education, Personal, Social and Humanities Education, Science Education, Technology Education, Arts Education and Physical Education.
Key Stages (KS)
The 4 stages of schooling from primary to secondary: Key Stage 1 (junior primary P1-P3), Key Stage 2 (senior primary P4-P6), Key Stage 3 (junior secondary S1-S3) and Key Stage 4 (senior secondary S4-S6).
Learner Diversity
Every student is unique. They are different from each other in terms of maturity, motivation, ability, learning styles, aspirations, interests, aptitudes and socio-economic background.
Learning Community
A learning community refers to a group of people who have shared values and goals, and work closely together to generate knowledge and create new ways of learning through active participation, collaboration and reflection. Such a learning community may involve not only students and teachers, but also parents and other parties in the community.
Learning Environment
Learning environment denotes learning at home, in the school or in the community.
Learning Objectives
What students should learn, value and be able to do in each strand of a Key Learning Area at various stages of schooling.
Learning Outcomes
Learning outcomes refer to the expected students’ performance by the end of a particular stage of learning. Learning outcomes are developed based on the learning goals and objectives of the curriculum for the purpose of evaluating learning effectiveness. Learning outcomes also describe the levels of performance that students should attain after completing a particular key stage of learning and serve as a tool for promoting learning and teaching.
Learning Targets
Learning targets of a Key Learning Area set out the aims and directions for the general expectations of students in the learning of the Key Learning Area.
School-based Curriculum
Based on the basic requirements of the central curriculum, students should be entitled to learn. Schools are encouraged to adapt the central curriculum in developing their school-based curriculum to help their students to achieve the learning targets and aims of education. Measures may include readjusting the learning targets, varying the organisation of contents, optional studies, learning, teaching and assessment strategies. A school-based curriculum, hence, is the outcome of a balance between the curriculum recommended by the CDC and the autonomy of the schools and teachers.
Self-directed Learning
Self-directed learning is an umbrella notion related to self-regulated leaning, self-learning and independent learning. Self-directed learning generally has the following key characteristics and skills: Learners' control and self-management, learners' reflection, personal autonomy in context, tendency of self-learning, such as the independent pursuit of learning outside school. Each has its features to enhance the learning autonomy of students through building a sense of agency and motivation in their learning process.
‘Seed’ Project
A collaborative research and development project to (i) generate / ‘seed’ useful experiences for the reference of schools, teachers and the community; (ii) develop a critical mass of curriculum change agents and leaders (e.g. teachers, school heads, teacher-librarians) to enhance the capacity for reform and (iii) act as an impetus to school-based curriculum development.
Students with Special Education Needs (SEN)
Students with SEN include those with intellectual disability, visual impairment, hearing impairment, physical disability, Autistic Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, speech and language impairment and Specific Learning Difficulties.
An ability to use Cantonese, Putonghua and Spoken English effectively.
Whole-school Curriculum Planning
The purpose of whole-school curriculum planning is to help students to achieve the seven learning goals. It involves providing a more broad and balanced curriculum covering the eight Key Learning Areas and five essential learning experiences through school calendar planning and timetabling arrangement, setting priorities for short-term targets of school curriculum development. In the planning process, schools should consider smooth progression in curriculum design, coherence among the Key Learning Areas and flexibility in the learning, teaching and assessment strategies.